Viral | Bacterial Human Disease and health for exams

Human Disease and health-related topics are most important for competitive and academic examination. It is a relevant topic for students who are preparing for the Medical exam and also who study with a biology stream. 

We know that the Diseases do not leave any living organisms that are present on the earth.

There are thousands of diseases present around you. In which some are Common that we know while some are very Critical or Dangerous that affect some specific parts of human bodies and we are unknown from these diseases. So we should also have general information about human Diseases for our health awareness.

    How is defined, human Disease and health?

    All types of diseases are studied in Pathology. Human diseases are defined by various institutions and Pathologists. But the definition of human disease is different from each-others while the meanings are the same.

    Human diseases are a typical abnormal situation that negatively affects the human body functions or structure. Causes of the disease can be pathogenic (Virus, Bacteria, Fungal, etc) and non-pathogenic (Genetic and others).

    In other words, we can explain the human disease. "The clutters malfunctioning of the mind or body that decreases your good health can be called a disease."

    Human Disease and health
    Human Disease and health

    Types of Human Disease


    On the basis of feature, classifications of human diseases can be three different types.

    1. On the basis of Duration

    • Acute diseases (Short term)

    • Chronic diseases (Long term)

      2. On the basis of Causative agent

    • Infectious - It is caused by Pathogenic and it can be also divided in the Communicable and non-communicable.
    • Non-Infectious - Other different causes from pathogenic. In which diseases can include Allergies, Deficiency, Metabolic, and Genetic disorders.

    3. On the basis of Pathogens


    It is a common and straightforward clarification to know about human diseases which divide on the basis of multiple Pathogens (Microorganisms that cause diseases in other higher organisms are called Pathogens). On the basis of Pathogens, diseases are divided into:

    a. Viral Disease
    b. Bacterial Disease
    c. Fungal Disease
    d. Protozoan Disease

    Type ofHuman Disease
    Type of Human Diseases

    Human Disease List


    This post is written for all competitive exams, so here we have provided knowledge about diseases on the basis of Pathogens so that the aspirants can get more advantage in the examinations. Let's start knowing the most important names of diseases separately.

    Viral Diseases
    1.
    AIDS
    9.
    Trachoma
    2.
    Dengue
    10.
    Hepatitis/Jaundice
    3.
    Polio
    11.
    Hepatitis/Jaundice
    4.
    Influenza(flu)
    12.
    Rabies
    5.
    Chickenpox
    13.
    Meningitis
    6.
    Smallpox
    14.
    Herpes
    7.
    Goitre
    15.
    Yellow fever
    8.
    Measles
    16.
    Ebola

    Bacterial Diseases
    1.
    Tetanus
    7.
    Whooping cough
    2.
    Typhoid
    8.
    Pneumonia
    3.
    Cholera
    9.
    Leprosy
    4.
    Tuberculosis
    10.
    Gonorrhoea
    5.
    Diphtheria
    11.
    Syphilis
    6.
    Plague
    12.
    E Coli

     Fungal Diseases
    1.
    Asthma
    2.
    Athlete's foot
    3.
    Scabies
    4.
    Baldness
    5.
    Ringworm

    Protozoan Diseases
    1.
    Malaria
    2.
    Filaria
    3.
    Pyorrhoea
    4.
    Diarrhoea
    5.
    Sleeping sickness
    6.
    Kala-azar

    Genetic Diseases or Syndrome
    1.
    Colour blindness
    6.
    Marfan syndrome
    2.
    Down syndrome
    7.
    Patau syndrome
    3.
    Edward syndrome
    8.
    Thalassemia
    4.
    Haemophilia
    9.
    Turner syndrome
    5.
    Klinefelter Syndrome
    10.
    Albini's

    Human Disease Chart


    Here is the Human disease chart which includes some important diseases that are always asked in the various examinations. This chart provides you with the name of the disease, names of Pathogens, Affected organs of human bodies, and their Symptoms.

    Human Viral Disease


    The virus is an acellular microbe. Viruses can survive only in living cells. So it is considered to be a Parasite. It is also considered to be the link between the living and the non-living things. There are thousands of viruses present in the environment that are responsible for various human diseases.

    Human Disease and health
    Human Disease and health

    N.
    Name of Disease
    Name of Virus
    Affected Organ
    Disease Symptoms
    1.
    AIDS

    HIV
    Defensive Systems (WBC)
    The immune system of the body became weak.
    2.
    DENGU
    Billions of virus
    Whole-body particularly head, eyes, and Joints
    Pain in eyes, muscles, head, and joints.
    3.
    POLIO
    Poliovirus
    Throat, Backbone, and Nerve
    Fever, Body pain, backbone and important cells are destroyed.
    4.
    INFLUENZA
    ( flu)
    Nico virus
    Whole-body
    Suffocation, sneezing, restlessness.
    5.
    CHICKEN POX
    Variola virus
    Whole-body
    High fever, Reddish eruption on the body.
    6.
    SMALLPOX
    Varicella virus
    Whole-body
    Light fever, the eruption of bile on the body.
    7.
    MEASLES
    Morbilli
    virus
    Whole-body
    Reddish eruption on the body.
    8.
    TRACHOMA
    Chlamydia Trachomatis
    Eyes
    Reddish eyes and pain in the eyes.
    9.
    HEPATITIS
    Orthohepadna virus(B), hepatic virus (C)
    Liver
    Eyes and skin become yellow, also urine.
    10.
    RABIES
    Rabies virus
    Nervous system
    The patient becomes mad with a severe headache with a high fever.
    11.
    MENINGITIS
    Enterovirus
    Brain
    High fever
    12.
    HERPES
    Herpes virus
    Skin
    Swelling in the skin.
    Note: Full Form of  AIDS is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, while virus HIV  full form is Human ImmunoDeficiency Virus.

    Note: If the table is not full visible in Mobile mode, please view in desktop mode.

    Human Diseases caused by Bacteria


    Bacteria are the microscopic living organisms that are present anywhere in the environment. Bacteria have one cell but bacterias are found in different shapes.
    Structure of bacteria is very simple but they are very complex in behaviour. It can be dangerous when they cause an infection.

    Human Disease and health
    Human Disease and health

    N.
    Name of Disease
    Name of Bacteria
    Affected Organ
    Disease Symptoms
    1.
    TETANUS 
    Clostridium tetani
    Nervous system
    High fever, Spam in the body, Closing of jaws.
    2.
    CHOLERA
    Vibrio cholerae
    Intestine
    Vomiting and continually stooling.
    3.
    TYPHOID
    Salmonella typhosa
    Intestine
    Headache and high fevers.
    4.
    TUBERCULOSIS
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Lungs
    Repeated Coughing and Coughing with blood.
    5.
    DIPHTHERIA
    Corynebacterium diphtheriae
    Respiratory tube
    Suffocation and difficulty in respiration.
    6.
    PLAGUE
    Pasteurella pestis
    Lungs, an area between the two legs
    Very high fevers and muscular eruptions on the body.
    7.
    WHOOPING COUGH
    Haemophilus pertussis
    Respiratory system
    Continuous coughing.
    8.
    PNEUMONIA
    Diplococcus pneumoniae
    Lungs
    High fevers and swelling in the lungs.
    9.
    LEPROSY
    Mycobacterium leprae
    The nervous system, skin
    Spots on the body, nerves can affect.
    10.
    GONORRHOEA
    Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    Urinary path
    Swelling in the urinary path.
    11.
    SYPHILIS
    Treponema pallidum
    Urinary path
    Wounds in the urogenital tract.

    Human Disease caused by Fungi 


    Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophic organisms that are present in anywhere like soil, air and other living and nonliving things. 
    They also have a symbiotic association with plants and bacteria. So it can be dangerous sometimes. Fungi may create serious disease in plants but It is also responsible for some human disease.

    Human Disease and health
    Human Disease and health


    N.
    Name of Disease
    Name of Fungus
    Affected Organ
    Disease Symptoms
    1.
    ASTHMA
    Aspergillus fumigatus
    Lungs
    Difficulty in breathing.
    2.
    ATHELS FOOT
    Tenis pedes
    Foot skin
    Cracking in the foot.
    3.
    Scabies
    Acarus scabiei
    Skins
    Itching and white spots.
    4.
    Baldness
    Tinea capitis
    Heir of head
    Hair fall.
    5.
    Ringworm
    Trichophyton lerucosum 
    Skins 
    Round red spots on the skin.

    Human Disease caused by Protozoa


    Protozoa are a group of single-celled microorganisms, which are classified as animals. It is dangerous for humans because Protozoa can create many diseases.

    S.N.
    Name of Disease
    Name of Parasites|  
    and Carrier
    Affected Organ
    Disease Symptoms
    1.
    MALARIA
    Plasmodium |
    Female Anopheles
    RBC and Liver
    Fever with shivering.
    2.
    FILARIA
    (Elephantiasis)
    Wuchereria bancrofti
    |Culex mosquitoes
    Legs, testes and other parts of the body
    Swelling in the legs, and other parts.
    3.
    DIARRHOEA
    Entamoeba histolytica
    | Houseflies
    Intestine
    Mucous and Diarrhoea with blood.
    4.
    PYORRHOEA
    Entamoeba gingivalis |
    Gums
    Bleeding from gums.
    5.
    SLEEPING SICKNESS
    Trypanosoma |
    Tse-Tse flies
    Brain
    Fever with severe sleep.
    6.
    KALA-AZAR
    Leishmania donovani | Sandflies
    Bone marrow
    High fever.

    Human disease caused by Genetics


    The disease that transfers from one generation to the next generation is called Genetic Disease. Causes of these diseases are a jumble of DNA. Which is due to mutations of chromosomes. 

    S.N.
    Name of Disease
    Cause and Effects of disease
    1.
    Colour blindness
    This disorder leads to failure to distinguish Red and Green colour. The gene responsible for this disease is situated on sex chromosomes.
    2.
    Down syndrome
    When an extra chromosome is added to 21st autosomal chromosomes this leads to developing Down's syndrome. In this protrude an irregular physical structure is present. 
    3.
    Haemophilia
    The Gene responsible for this disorder is linked with sex chromosomes. This disease leads to failure in blood clotting. 
    4.
    Patau syndrome
    This syndrome is developed by addition of the autosomal chromosome in the 13th chromosome. Affect of this syndrome person is mentally retarded and a cut marking the lips. 
    5.
    Thalassemia
    It is a blood-related disorder which Prevents the formation of healthy haemoglobin to carry oxygen around the body. In this disorder, the growth rate can be less than other people and people always feel weak and tired. 

    The Disease caused by the Deficiency of Vitamins


    Vitamin was discovered by "Sir F. G. Hopkins" while the term Vitamin was minted by "Funk" in 1911.

    Human Disease and health


    Vitamins are organic compounds required in minute quantities. No calories are obtained from vitamins, but it is essential to regulate chemical reactions in the metabolism of the body. So, the deficiency of vitamins can cause various diseases. Diseases that are caused by vitamins are given below in detail.

    S.N
    Name of Vitamins
    Diseases caused by the deficiency of vitamin
    1.
    Vitamin - A
    Xerophthalmia, Night blindness
    2.
    Vitamin - B1
    Beriberi
    3.
    Vitamin - B2
    Cracking of skin, Reddish eyes
    4.
    Vitamin - B3
    Whiteness hair and Mentally retardedness.
    5.
    Vitamin - B5
    Pellagra or 4-D syndrome
    6.
    Vitamin - B6
    Anaemia, skin disease
    7.
    Vitamin - B7
    body pain, hair fall, Paralysis
    8.
    Vitamin - B12
    Jaundice, Teroile glutamic
    9.
    Vitamin - C
    Scurvy, Swelling gums
    10.
    Vitamin - D
    Tickets in children, Osteomalacia in adults
    11.
    Vitamin - E
    Less fertility
    12
    Vitamin - K
    Non-clotting of blood

    Diseases caused by the Deficiency of Minerals


    Deficiency of minerals is also a cause of disease. Due to deficiency of minerals, some parts or organs of the body are affected by the disease. Important diseases are given below.

    S.N
    Name of Minerals
    Diseases caused by the deficiency of minerals
    1.
    Iodine
    Goitre
    2.
    Iron
    Anaemia
    3.
    Calcium & Fasforas
    Bone and Tooth disease
    4.
    Copper 
    Wilson
    5.
    Folic acid
    Diarrhoea

    Some Non-Infectious Important Diseases


    Human Disease and health
     Human Disease and health

    1. Allergy - Some substances like Sand, smoke, chemicals, clothes, and cold are harmful to some people. There are reactions in their body, which causes various Diseases.

    2. Diabetes - It is a common disease caused by the deficiency of Insulin. In this case, blood sugars are increased and blood sugar can also increase the risk to clotting and heart strokes.

    3. Paralysis - It is caused by high blood pressure. In this disease within a short time, half of the body is paralyzed. In this case, the nerves of the paralyzed part become inactive. Paralysis is also known as Hemiplegia.

    4. Epilepsy - It is caused by internal disturbance of the brain. In this disease, foam comes out of the month and the patient falls down unconscious.

    5. Diplopia - This disease caused by the paralysis of muscles of the eyes, in which double image is formed.

    6. Hydrophobia - A disease caused by the bite of a mad dog. In which person fier from waters.

    7. Myopia - It is also known as Short sightedness. In this disease, the person can see the object of nearer distance but can't see the object of long-distance. A concave lens is used for it.

    8. Arthritis - It is a bone disease. In this Disease inflammation of joints takes place.

    9. Emphysema - It is the abnormal distension of alveoli which results in the loss of elasticity. Smoking and chronic bronchitis are the two main causes of this disease.

    10. Arteriosclerosis - Due to the deposition of cholesterol and calcium salts arteries become stiff and rigid. It loses the property of elasticity due to which wall of arteries can rap.

    COVID-19
    COVID (Corona Virus Disease) - 19 is the newest viral disease found in December 2019. This is an untouchability disease that started from Wuhan (China). This Disease spread from Coughing, sneezing, living with affected people, and other various sources. Startling Symptoms of this disease are fever, Coughing, and trouble in breathing. Due to spread in the whole world, it is considered as an epidemic, because Lakhs of people are affected by this disease.

    Disclaimer:


    This post is written for general information only for an exam point of view. But it can be helpful for all who want to know about diseases. All above data is taken by various sources like the Internet, Books and my own knowledge. This correct and straightforward information about Human Disease and Health can increase your marks in the exams.

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