Thursday, 4 July 2019

Geography of India

Geography of India
Geography of India

Geography of India
is the most important topics for all competitive exams in which General studies are more valuable. Its knowledge is also helpful in administrations. like planing making and estimations, we learn two parts in the geography of India, The first is physical and second Human. In the physical parts, we study about landforms,(such as mountains, plateaus, plains,etc.) climate, vegetation, river, etc.
While in human geography we study political parts like states, resources, population, industry, settlement, and relations between Earth and human, etc. In this context, you will get general information about the geography of India Which is important for the examination point of view.

Geography of India


Geography of India is very speciality and diversity. India's geological structure involves the rock of the new period from ancient times. The northern part of India is part of AngaraLand while Peninsular India is a part of Gondwana Land. Due to the diversity of India's physical structure, there is a diversity in the living conditions of climate, vegetation, living organisms and people living in different areas.

 Location and extent

Geography of India
Geography of India
India is the seventh-largest country in the world, which is located in the south of Asia's continent. Its location on the globe is in the hemisphere between 8 ° 4' to 37 ° 6' latitude and 68 ° 7 'to 97 ° 25' east longitude. 82° 30' India's standard timeline is 5 hours 30 minutes ahead of GMT. The cancer line passes through India, which divides it into two parts - Northern India and the peninsular part of the south. India's north-south length is 3214 km and from east to west 2933 km. Thus, the total area of ​​India is 32,87,263 square kilometres, which is 2.42% of the entire world area. India's terrestrial border length is 15200 km and the length of the aqueous boundary is 7516 km.

Physical Features of India

India's physical structure is full of variations India is the land of high mountains, mighty rivers, extensive plains and forests, elaborate plateaus, beautiful hills, beautiful waterfalls, and fresh beaches.11% of the total area of ​​India is mountainous, 18% hills 28% plateaus and 43% of land area is plain. India is generally divided into four physical regions on the basis of relief -
Geography of India
Geography of India

1.Northern mountain region -

In the northern part of India, the Himalayan mountain garland is expanded in approximately 5 lakh square kilometres. This mountain range is divided into three parts (Himalayan mountain ranges, Trans-Himalayas, and mountains of Purvanchal). In it, the Himalayas, which is a folded mountain, is the longest chain. The total length of the Himalayas is 2400 km, whereas the average width is 400 km. The Himalaya Mountains are divided into three parts -Great Himalayas, Central Himalayas, and Shivalik Which extend from Jammu Kashmir the west, to Arunachal Pradesh in the east.

2.Peninsular plateaus and hills -

The intense plateau spread over 16 million sq km is made of the rocks of the Arakan group, which are ancient rocks of the world. Due to being more ancient, these plateaus have been divided into several parts, which include the Deccan Plateau, Malwa, Bundelkhand, Karnataka, Telangana Plateau. Various hills have been constructed in this region of peninsular, in which the Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Vindhyan, Satpura and Nilgiri are the main hills.

3.The Great Northern Plains -

Between the Himalayas and the Peninsular Plateau, is a vast field built by rivers Indus, Ganga, and the Brahmaputra, which is an example of the new structure. This vast plaza is spread over 7.5 lakh square kilometres of land in India. The expanse of this plain is in the west, from Punjab to the east, Assam, in approximately 2400 km, whose width is 100-500 km. Approximately 1.75 lakh sq km in the western part of the plain, due to low rainfall, the desert has been developed, which is known as the Thar Tropical Desert.

4.Coastal Plains and Islands -

India's coastal plain is the result of the action of the sea and the deposit of the rivers. This field is divided into eastern and western parts. The width of the eastern coast is much higher than the west, due to the low slope and Delta construction. The total number of Indian islands is 247, which is 204 is located in the Bay of Bengal and is located in the other Arabian Sea. But mainly in India, there are two islands - Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep, which is a group of many islands.

Rivers of India

Rivers have played an important role in India since ancient times. India's ancient civilization, the Indus Valley civilization developed in the river valleys. Agricultural work also started in river valleys and all the major cities of ancient times till now have been developed on the banks of rivers, due to the availability of infrastructure in these areas. The importance of rivers in India is even more religious because rivers are considered holy in Hinduism. Indian rivers provide a livelihood for potable water, cheap transport, electricity, fertile soil and people to a large number of people across the country. On the basis of origin, Indian rivers are divided into four parts-
Geography of India
Geography of India

1.Exit from of Himalayas -

The main source of water supply in Himalayan rivers is Himalayan and rainwater, due to which water flows in these rivers for years. Ganga, Yamuna, Indus, Sutlej, Brahmaputra are the major rivers in this region. The river Ganges is the largest river in India, which is 2500 km long

2Exit from Western Ghats (Sahyadri) -

Rivers coming out of the Western Ghats are divided into two parts, one flowing towards the west and the other towards East. Almost all the river flowing towards the west are small, which fall into the Arabian Sea, these rivers form Eschuvari while rivers flowing eastwards from the delta. The source of water in the rivers coming out of these areas is also accompanied by lakes along with rainwater. The major rivers of this region are Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Bhima, etc.

3.Exit from the Aravali Mountains -

The source of water in the rivers coming out of this part is rainwater. Chambal, Luni, and Banas are the main rivers in this region.

4.Rivers emerging from the intermediate plateau -

The main rivers of this region are Sone, Mahanadi, Narmada, Tapti River. Rainwater is the main water source of these rivers, but some rivers have water sources also lakes.

    India's rivers follow the shield, two areas make the clay in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Rivers falling in the Arabian Sea produce Eschuvari due to steep slopes, Whereas the river falling in the Bay of Bengal builds delta due to the low slope. The Sundarbans delta built by the river Ganga is the largest delta in the world, which is in the Bay of Bengal.

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Soil of India

Due to being an agricultural country, the soil is one of the main resources of India. Due to differences in the rocky structure of entire India and adequate variety in the climate of India, variation in the types of soil is also found. The Indian soil is divided into 8 sections by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) -
Type of soil & Area in %
  • Alluvial Soils (22.16)
  • Black Soils (29.69)
  • Red Soils (28.00)
  • Laterite Soils (2.62)
  • Arid Sandy Soils (6.13)
  • Saline a (1.29)
  • Bio Soils (2.17)
  • Forest or Mountain Soils (7.94)

Climate of India

The climate of India is predominantly tropical monsoon climate. But due to the influence of large geographical area, more Latitudinal expansions and physical structures, India is found in tropical climates to temperate climatic conditions. The interior and central part of India experiences a continental type of climate. In these areas, the summers are very hot and the winters very cold because they are far from the influence of the sea. The coastal regions have an equable climate all year round. They have very little variation in summer and winter temperatures. The southern part of India lies near the Equator and so it remains hot throughout the year. Someplace in India receives heavy rainfall while others remain dry. It snows heavily in certain areas, while others are hot as a desert.
On the basis of temperature, rainfall, and humidity, Koppen has divided Indian climate into 6 sub-territories.
      On the basis of temperature, monsoon, and variation, the Indian climate is generally divided into four seasons:-
  • Summer Season -
March to mid-June
  • Winter Season -
From mid-December to February
  • Rainy Season -
From mid-June to September
  • Autumn or Retreating monsoon season -
from October to mid-December

The natural vegetation of India

As a result of greater diversity in the Indian climate, different types of natural vegetation have been developed in various climatic regions of India. The vegetation of India generally emulate the rainfall, but due to height on the natural vegetation of the Himalayas, there is a greater effect of temperature declines. Thus, the development of India's vegetation has the effect of both climate and relief. India can be divided into the following vegetation regions -
  1. Tropical Evergreen Rain Forest
  2. The Tropical Deciduous Forest or The Monsoon Forest
  3. The Mountain Forest
  4. The Semi-Desert and Desert Vegetation
  5. The Tidal Forest
  6. The vegetation of the Himalayan Region

Natural Resources

Natural resources are an important contributor to the economic development of any country. India has been rich from the perspective of resources since ancient times, but due to pressure on the limited resources of the growing population, there is a shortage of resources in India, but even today, in many significant natural resources, India is self-reliant.

Political geography of India

India is the largest country in South Asia whose international land border is between seven countries - China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Myanmar While countries related to aquatic boundaries, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Indonesia are prominent. As it is surrounded by natural boundaries, it is also known as the Indian sub-continent. The Republic of India is a union of States. It consists of 29 states and 7 union territories for administrative convenience. These administrative units have been further divided into district and tehsil etc. India has seven states Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal coastal and two union territories Lakshadweep, Andaman Nicobar are an island. The list of states and their capital are below-
SN.     STATES                 CAPITAL
1.
Bihar
Patna
2.
Uttar Pradesh
Lucknow
3.
Uttarakhand
Dehradun
4.
Chhattisgarh
Raipur
5.
Jharkhand
Ranchi
6.
Jammu & Kashmir
Srinagar
7.
Haryana
Chandigarh
8.
Madhya Pradesh
Bhopal
9.
Telangana
Hyderabad
10.
Punjab
Chandigarh
11.
Rajasthan
Jaipur
12.
Himachal Pradesh
Shimla
13.
Mizoram
Aizawl
14.
Nagaland
Kohima
15.
Manipur
Imphal
16.
Tripura
Agartala
17.
Meghalaya
Shillong
18.
Sikkim
Gangtok
19.
Arunachal Pradesh
Itanagar
20.
Assam
Dispur

Coastal States

21.
Gujarat
Gandhinagar
22.
Maharashtra
Mumbai
23.
Karnataka
Bengaluru
24.
Kerala
Thiruvananthapuram
25.
Tamilnadu
Chennai
26.
Andhra Pradesh
Hyderabad
27.
Odisha
Bhubaneswar
28.
West Bengal
Kolkata
29.
Goa
Panji

Union territories

1.
Delhi
New Delhi
2.
Chandigarh
Chandigarh
3.
Daman & Diu
Daman
4.
Dadar Nagar Haveli
Silvassa
5.
Pondicherry
Pondicherry
6.
Andaman Nicobar
Port Blair
7.
Lakshadweep
Kavaratti

       Thus, we see that despite its various physical divisions, India is a single geographical entity. It has its own distinctive features which separate it from the rest of the Asian continent. Indian society and culture, agriculture, business, industry, transport, etc. have developed the physical structure of India ie relief, climate, soil, vegetation, etc. in accordance with its effect. Therefore, there are differences in almost all kinds of things from one place to another.

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