Learn all about the President of India and their roles

The Constitution of India describes that there will be a President of India. President is the high ranking and reputed post in the hierarchy so the president is the head of the Union states. 
The President of India is an integral part of Parliament and the Indian President is also the first citizen of India due to the head of the Constitution. 
The concept of the President came to India from the USA. Political post of president is applicable in those countries, which is a democratic country. But the role of the president is not the same in all countries due to disparities in their constitution.
the President of India
The President of India


President of India list and their Tenure 

India came to be a Republic country on 26 January 1950 and Dr. Rajendra Prasad became the first President of India. 
The list of the presidents is showing all the Presidents of India from 1950 to at present. In this list, Acting Presidents are also included, which was temporary. 
S.No
          Name of the President
                  Tenure
1.
Dr Rajendra Prasad
26 Jan 1950 - 13 May 1962
2.
Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
13 May 1962 - 13 May 1967
3.
Dr. Zakir Hussain
13 May 1967 - 3 May 1969
4.
Sri V. V. Giri (Acting President)
03 May 1969 - 20 July 1969
5.
M. Hidayatullah (Acting President)
20 July 1969 - 24 Aug 1969
6.
Sri V.V. Giri
24 Aug 1969 - 24 May 1974
7.
Dr. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
24 Aug,1974 - 11 Feb, 1977
8.
B. D. Jatti (Acting President)
11 Feb 1977 - 25 July 1977
9.
Sri Nilam Sanjiv Reddy
25 July 1977 - 25 July 1982
10.
Giani Zail Singh
25 July 1982 - 25 July 1987
11.
Sri Ramaswami Venkataraman
25 July 1987 - 25 July 1992
12.
Dr. Sankar Dayal Sharma
25 July 1992 - 25 July 1997
13.
Sri K.R. Narayanan
25 July 1997 - 25 July 2002
14.
Dr. A.P. J. Abdul Kalam
25 July 2002 - 25 July 2007
15.
Smt. Pratibha Devi Singh Patil
25 July 2007 - 25 July 2012
16.
Sri Pranab Mukherjee
25 July 2012 - 25 July 2017
17.
Sri Ram Nath Kovin 
25 July 2017 - at present

Who can be a President of India?

Anyone who has citizenship of India can be President of India but some compulsory conditions are applied for this. Which are the following:

Qualifications for the president of India is 
  1. Be a citizen of India.
  2. The age should be a minimum of 35 years.
  3. Not to be another profitable post under the government of India or States.
  4. He fulfills the norms of being elected a member of the Lok Sabha.
Note: A person can be elected more than one time.
If somebody holds the post of the political leaders such as the President or Vice-President or is a member of the Council of Ministers of the Union or of a State,  will not be considered for a post of profit.

The election process of President in India

The president of India is elected indirectly by an electoral college, in accordance with the system of proportional representation by single transferable vote. The electoral college for the president including:
  • All the elected members of the Parliament( Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha).
  • The elected members of the Legislative Assembly of all 28th states.
  • The elected members of the Legislative Assembly of Union Territories of Delhi and Puducherry ( According to 77th Constitutional amendment 1992).
Note: Any type of dispute related to the presidential election is only solved in the supreme court.

Tenure of the president 

The term of President is five years from the date on which he or she enters upon his office. But the president can leave his post before the completed terms with his own desires. For this, the president can submit a resignation in writing under his hand addressed to the Vice-president of India.
  • Absence of the vice-president he can be addressed to the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. 
  • "Article sixty-one ( 61)" is defined that the President can be removed by impeachment before his term, but the ground of the impeachment should be only Violence of the constitution.

Salary of the president and their allowance 

Salary of the President is higher than all other political posts and the salary is also tax-free. Along with the salary, many other allowances and facilities ( like House, Staff, etc) are accessible to the President. 
The president gets five lakh(50,0000) per month as a salary from 2018. 
As a pension, the president receives 30 lakh per year.

What are the Duties and powers of the President of India?

According to the Indian constitution duties and powers of President are limited but the executive power of the Union of India lies in the President. But the Constitution of India also provides some important duties and responsibilities for the president, which is the following:

Most 6 duties of the President 

  1. Conserve the constitution.
  2. Appoint the PM, Council of Ministers, and other executives. 
  3. Emergency Declaration. 
  4. Signatures on the bill to make a law.
  5.  According to require issuing Ordinances, when the Parliament is not in session. 
  6. Addressing both houses of parliament in the 1st session after each general election of the Lok Sabha.

the President of India
The President of India


Important rights and powers of the president in India

Administrative Power:

  • India's President is the formal or nominal head of the administration but all executive agreements and actions of the union are expressed to be taken in the name of the president.
  • All officers of the Union are subordinate to the president of India and the president has a right to be informed of the affairs of the Union.
  • The President has the power to appoint high dignitaries like the PM of India, Other Ministers of the Union, the Attorney-General of India, CAG, the judges of the Supreme Court, and the High Court, Chief Election Commissioner, Governors of States and others.

Legislative Power:

  • The President can summon or prorogue the House of Parliament and dissolve the Lok Sabha. 
  • The President also has the power to summon a joint sitting of both the Houses of Parliament in case of an impasse between them.
  • The Constitution of India provides a right to the president, can nominate 2 Anglo-Indian members in Lok Sabha and 12 in Rajya Sabha from various sectors.
  • When the session of Parliament is not a running period and the country has needed important laws, then the president can bring an ordinance (Article 123). But it will not be permanent.
  • Veto power is an important power that is provided to the president. Due to any causes, if the president wants to prevent any bill (Except the Money Bill), he/she can use it. The President has three types of veto power provided by the Constitution: 
    1. Suspensive Veto
    2. Absolute Veto
    3. Pocket Veto

Judicial Power:

'Article 72' of the Indian Constitution provides the power to grant pardon. According to this the President can suspension, short or pardon capital punishment, given by any court.

Military Power:

The President of India is the Commander in chief of the all three ( Air force, Navy, and Army) Militaries. He appoints the chief of all Militaries. Indian President has the right to declare war or peace and deploy the security forces. But these powers of the President are controlled by the Parliament.

Advice power :

The President can take advice to the Supreme Court for questions of social importance, but It can be acceptable or rejectable by the President.

Diplomatic Power:

The President is empowered to mediate treaties and agreements with other countries on the guidance of his Ministers, subject to ratification by Parliament.
The President of India represents India in International affairs, appoints Indian delegates to other countries, and receives diplomatic delegates from other States.

The Emergency Power:

The President has extraordinary powers to deal with a situation of emergency, which can implement three types of conditions:
  1. During the war, external attacks or weapons revision in India and any part of India (Article 352).
  2. During the failure of the Constitution systems in the state(Article 356).
  3. During the period of Financial emergency(Article 360).

Some important facts related to the president of India

  • Smt. Pratibha Singh Patil is the first woman president of India.
  • The Chief Justice of the Supreme court swears in the president of India.
  • Nilam Sanjiv Reddy was the first unopposed elected President of India.
  • V. V. Giri was the first Acting President of India in 1969.
  • Dr Rajendra Prasad who was the first President of India was also the chairman of the Constitution assembly.
  • There were two Indian President Dr. Jakir Hussain and F. Ali Ahmed who had deaths during his tenure.
  • Absence of the President, the Vice-president does all the work of the President. 

Important articles related to the President:


Article - 52 - Describe the post of the President. 
Article - 53 -  Executive power of the Parliament vests in the President.
Article - 54 - Election of the President.
Article - 55 - Election process of the President.
Article - 56 - Tenure of the President.
Article - 57 - Qualifications of the president for Re-election.
Article - 58 - Qualifications for the post of the president of India.
Article - 59 - Conditions for the post of the President.
Article - 60 - Swears by the President
Article - 61 - Process of the Impeachment for the President.
Article - 62 - Time of the election for the fillup of the vacant post of the President and tenure of the elected person for the fillup of the vacant post of the president in an emergency.
Article - 87 - Special Address of the President for the Parliament.
Article - 123 - Right to issue Ordinances.
Article - 143 - The President can take suggestions from the Supreme Court.

A short intro on the President of India can increase your Basic knowledge. If you want to know more about India's President you may refer to books of Indian polity and the Constitution.

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