Introduction to History of India timeline for UPSC pdf

The History of India should know everyone, because knowing your present, it is mandatory to know the events that happened in the past. History always tells us this is what. 


There are so many interesting facts in Indian history that show how and when our culture and civilization have changed in Ancient to Modern time. As well as it also shows their causes and effects. 


This post covers Ancient History, Medieval History, and Modern History of India timeline.  This post can be also more helpful for a chronological study of Indian history. 


History of India
The History of India 


    What is History and How do historians study the History of India Timeline? 


    History is a part of social science, under which we study in chronological order about the events that happened in the past or the people related to them.


    In other words, History is a study of past human activities in which ancient events of human beings are studied. 


    The purpose of historians in history writing is to highlight the present and direct the future by observation of past events or human activities.


    History is made from the Greek word 'Historia' which means inquiry or research. 'Herodotus'  was the first man to use the word history and 'Herodotus'  was also arranged history as a separate subject. Due to more contributions in this subject 'Herodotus' is called the father of history.


    Sources of knowing History of India


    Historians write History on the basis of various sources. The Scriptures, historical treatise, Archeological evidence, Travel details of the foreigners are the main sources of knowing Indian history. According to the study sources, history is divided into:


    Pre Historic Age 


    In which periods there are no written discretions of any event is called prehistoric age. Pre Historic age is divided into Pre stone age, Stone age, and Later stone age. 


    Proto Historic Age 


    The period in which written art was available, but articles could not be read, is called proto historical age.


    Historical Age 


    That period of human development is called historical age, which descriptions are available in written forms.


    History of India and their parts


    Indian History is divided into three different parts for the facilitation of study. 

    1. ANCIENT HISTORY

    2. MEDIEVAL HISTORY

    3. MODERN HISTORY

    ANCIENT HISTORY OF INDIA 


    Ancient history is a source of knowledge about past events and the ancient civilization of India. In this part, we learn about the growth and decline of ancient Indian civilizations, culture, economy, and administration.


    Ancient history has included prehistoric age, proto historical age, and historical age till 7th century AD. But the history of India starts with the Indus Valley Civilization and the arrival of the Aryans. These two phrases are commonly defined as the pre-Vedic and Vedic periods. The earlier literary source that sheds light on India's past is the Rig Veda. It is hard to date this work with any accuracy on the basis of tradition and controversial astronomical evidence included in the archaeological survey.


    Indus valley civilization, which developed between 2500 BC and 1750 BC, had an advanced and healthy economic system. The Harappan civilization's people have practiced agriculture, domestic animals, made tools and weapons from copper, bronze, and tin and even traded with some Middle East countries.


    The Indus Valley Civilization


    A long time ago, in the Southern and Western part of the Asia Continent, there were some civilizations. Along with the Mesopotamian civilization and the Egyptian civilization, the Indus Valley civilization which was a Urban Civilization, extended over North-west India and present Pakistan.


    The main reasons for the rise of these civilizations were access to rivers, which fulfilled various advantages of human beings.


    The largest amongst the three civilizations, the Indus Valley civilization grew around 2500 BC, at that time agriculture in India started growing. The productive Indus valley made it probable for agriculture to be carried out on a large scale.


    The most famous towns of the Indus Valley civilization are Mohenjodaro and Harappa. Uncovering these two towns showed excavators glimpses into the richness of the Indus Valley civilization, evidenced in ruins and things like household articles, war harpoons, Silver and gold ornament, and so on.


    The Indus Valley civilization towns were well-planned and well-designed houses were made by baked bricks. In an era of growth and happiness, Indus Valley civilization, unfortunately, came to an end by around 1750 BC, mainly due to natural hazards. 

     

    History of India


    Vedic Civilization of India 


    After Indus civilization the second historic era was developed in India as the Vedic civilization.

    Developing along with the Saraswati river, named after the Vedas, which represent the early literature of the Hindus.


    Rig Veda and other basic literature are the only sources of information for this period. Rigvedic people, who called themselves Aryans, were confined in the area which came to be known as Sapta Sindhu.


    Max Muller, considered to be the original home of Aryans was Central Asia. Aryans were first settled in Punjab and Afghanistan in India.  


    The Vedic period is divided into two parts: 

    1. Early Rig Vedic Period(1500-1000 BC).

    2. Later Vedic Period (1000-600 BC).

     

    The two biggest epics of this period were the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, still held in great respect by the followers of Hinduism.  


    Rising of the Mahajanpadas and Buddha Era


    The next historical period after the Vedic Period came to the Buddhist era, before the birth of the Buddha the 6th century India was divided into sixteen Janapadas, which is known as Mahajanpada.


    Leading powers at the time were the Sakyas of Kapilavastu and the Licchavis of Vaishali. But after some time Magadha had become the most leading power.


    History of India



    The Buddhist era


    The period of the 6th century known as the Buddhist era due to flourishing Buddhism.


    Buddha, whose original name was Siddhartha Gautam, was born in 563 BC in Lumbini near Kapilvastu. Gautam buddha was the founder of "Buddhism" - a religion based on spiritualism. 


    Buddha died at the age of 80 in 480 BC in Kusinara(Uttar Pradesh) but his thoughts and teachings prevail throughout southern and eastern Asia and are followed across the world. Gautam Buddha is also called as "Lite of Asia''.

     

    The Invasion of Alexander


    Alexander was known as "Sikandra Maha" invaded India in 326 BC.

    Alexander crossed the Indus river with a huge army and defeated the Indian rulers in battle. Notable of the Indians’ attempts at war was the use of elephants, something that the Macedonian had never seen before. Alexander then dominated the lands of the defeated kings. After a long battle, his army denied crossing the Vayas river then Alexander returned to Macedonia.


    Ancient Empire of India and their Dynasty 


    Magadha Empire


    Magadha was one of the leading empires in northern India into the sixteen Mahajanapadas. The founder of Magadha is considered to be Brihadrath. In this empire, many dynasties have been ruled about 400 years from 544 BC to 187 BC. The Maurya was the popular dynasty of this period.


    The Maurya Dynasty


    After defeating the Nanda Dynasty, Chandragupta Maurya established the Maurya Dynasty. This dynasty ruled over the Magadha from 322 BC to 187 BC. The Great Ashoka became the most popular King in this period. 


    Under the period of Ashoka, the Maurya Empire reached its climax. For the first time in India, the whole of the sub-continent, leaving out the apex South, was under imperial control. Ashoka was also famous for his Edicts and Inscriptions. The trends of the inscription were firstly started in India by Ashoka. There have been 14 Edicts established by Ashoka in different places. 


    The last Mauryan ruler, Brihadrath, was assassinated in 185 BC by his commander-in-chief, Pushyamitra Sunga, who established his own Sunga dynasty. 


    The period of 185 BC to 319 AD can be called Post Maurya or Pre-Gupta period. In this period native successors of Mauryas have been Sunga Dynasty (185 BC - 73 BC), Kanva Dynasty (73 BC - 28 BC), Satavahana Dynasty ( 60 BC - 225 AD).


    The period of the Satavahana dynasty has been very difficult due to foreigners' invasion. There were four foreigners respectively invading India and establishing their dynasty which was Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Parthians (Pahlavas), and Kushan Dynasty.


    Kanishka the King of Kushan


    Kanishka was a majestic king of the Kushan dynasty. Kanishka extended the Kushan power over upper India. He was ruled 78 AD - 101 AD in India. Kanishka also is known as the 'Second Ashoka' of India. He started an era in 78 AD which is now known as the Saka Era (Saka Samvata) and is used by the government of India.


    The Gupta Empire (319 AD - 540 AD )


    In the fourth century AD a new dynasty, the Gupta founded by 'Sir Gupta', arose in Magadha and established a large kingdom over the greater part of Northern India. Their rule lasted for more than 200 years.


    History of India


    The Gupta period is considered to be the Golden Age of Indian history. When Chandragupta-I accepted the gift of Pataliputra in dowry when he married the daughter of the king of the ‘Licchavi’, he began to lay down the foundation of his empire, which extended from the river Ganga to the city of Allahabad. He ruled for 15 years and was also known as the ‘king of kings’ due to his strategic conquests and the flourishing state of India. 


    Samudragupta was the other famous king of the Gupta dynasty, which is known as 'Napoleon of India' due to his military campaigns.


    Ancient Dynasty of South India


    There were three Early kingdoms (The Cheras, The Cholas, and The Pandyas) who ruled in South India in the ancient era, which is known as the 'Sangam Period' 1st - 3rd century AD. 


    Pushyabhuti or Vardhana Dynasty 


    The Pushyabhuti dynasty was founded in Thaneswar by Pushyabhuti probably towards the beginning of the 6th century. The period of 550 AD to 647 AD can be called the Post Gupta period. In this period of about 100 years respectively Pushyabhuti, Prabhakar Vradhana,  Rajyavardhana, and Harshvardhan ruled. In which Harshvardhan was most popular.


    Harshavardhana (606 - 647 AD)


    The last king of the ancient kingdoms in India is considered to be the king Harshavardhana, who ascended the throne at Thaneshwar and Kannauj after his brother died. While flourishing in a few of his conquests, he eventually got defeated by the Chalukya Kingdom of Deccan India. Harshavardhana was famous for establishing relations with the Chinese, and also for having high religious tolerance and strong administrative capabilities. 


    The States of Deccan


    Along with the Pushyabhuti dynasty, the Chalukyas of Vatapi (543 - 755 AD) and the Pallavas of Kanchi (575 - 897 AD) two other dynasties were the rise in southern India, which is known as the States of the Deccan.


    Thus there were so many dynasties ruled over Northern and Southern India until the 7th century AD and all the dynasties gave India a different culture and the different models of administration. There are so many cultures, traditions, and rules of their administration followed in present India.


    MEDIAEVAL HISTORY OF INDIA


    The medieval history of India is a long period between the ancient and modern periods of India. It is considered to be an important era for the development of new administration, culture, arts, etc.


    Period of 750 AD - 1707 AD is considered to be the Medieval Era in Indian history by Historians. Medieval India has divided into three phases:


    1. Early Medieval (650 -1206 AD)


    1. The Delhi Sultanate (1206 - 1526)


    1. The Mughal Era (1526 - 1707)


    Early Medieval History of India


    After Harshavardhana, the Rajpotas emerged as a powerful force in Northern India and dominated the Indian political scene for nearly 500 years from the 7th century. While the Chola, Chalukyas, Kakatiyas, Yadav, and Hoyasal dynasties dominated Southern India.


    Rajput dynasty of Northern India


    The Period of 650 AD to 1206 AD is known as Rajputs dynasties in Northern India. Between the Period of the Rajput, there is so many large and small dynasty rose in different regions in North India, like Chauhan of Delhi - Ajmer, Pratihara of Kannauj, Parmar of Malwa, Solanki of Kathiawar, Rashtrakuta of Malkhanda, Chandela of Khajuraho, and Sisodiya of Mewar, etc.


    Toward the close of the 8th century AD, there were three great powers in India - The Pals in the East, the Gurjar - Pratihar in the North, and the Rashtrakuta in the Deccan. This mutual conflict is known as the Tripartite Struggle in the medieval history of India. It was the most important event of the 8th century. The main cause of this struggle was the desire to possess the city of Kannauj, which was a symbol of sovereignty.


    The Dynasty of Southern India


    In the period of early Mediaeval, there were so many dynasties established in Southern India like the Chola, the Kakatiyas, the Yadavas, etc. But the Rashtrakuta and the Chola were a more powerful dynasty in all southern dynasties. 


    The Rashtrakuta Dynasty 


    'Dantidurga' was the founder of the Rashtrakuta. The Rashtrakuta ruled over the South-West part of India for more than 200 years. Krishna-I, Dhruva, Govind-III, Amoghvarsha, Indra-III, and Krishna-III were the chief rulers of the Rashtrakuta dynasty.


    The greatest Rashtrakuta rulers were Govind-III (793 - 814) and Amoghvarsha (814 - 878). Govind-III participated in Tripartite Struggle and defeated Dharmpal and Nagabhata-II.

    Amoghvarsha ruled for 64 years but by temperament, he preferred pursuit of religion and literature to war. The last great ruler of the Rashtrakuta was Krishna-III.


    World-famous Rock-Cut caves Ajanta and Alora were built in the Period of Rashtrakuta.


    History of India



    The Chola Dynasty


    Between the 9th century AD to 14th century AD, the Chola has dominated in the south part of India. Their kingdom covered a large part of Southern India, also including Sri Lanka and the Maldives.


    The founder of the Chola dynasty was Vijyalay, who was the first a feudatory of the Pallavas. He was captured 'Tanjore' in 850 AD. The greatest Chola rulers were Rajendra and his son Rajendra-I.


    The Chola dynasty was at its zenith during the Rajendra-I. He conquered Orissa, Bengal, Burma and Andaman and Nicobar islands. The last ruler of the Chola dynasty was Rajendra-III.


    The Chola was famous for his Local self-governance. It was also famous for their arts, the style of architecture which came into vogue during this period is called Dravida like Kailashnath of Kanchipuram. Another aspect was image-making which reached its climax in the dancing figure of Lord Shiva called Nataraja.


    Background of the Delhi Sultanate 


    After the period of the 11th century, the history of medieval India is renowned for deriving a lot of its identity from Islamic kingdoms. 


    Although the Delhi Sultanate was not established suddenly in India by Islamic kingdoms. Before the Delhi Sultanate, there were many times Islamic kingdoms invaded India.


    The first Muslim invasion is considered to be the invasion of Arabian on the Sindh in 712 AD by the Mohammad Bin Qasim. The second and third invasion was the Turks by the Sultan Mahmud Ghazni and Mohammad Ghori


    Ghazni was invaded 17 times in India between the 1000-1027 AD to enrich himself by taking away the wealth from India. In 1025 he attacked and raided the most popular Hindu temple of Somnath that Lise in the coast in the extreme south of Kathiawar. The temple was destroyed in 1026 AD. The last attack of Ghazni was 1027 AD against the Jat.


    Mohammad Ghori was a ruler of the Gaur which was a small state under the Gajni. He was invaded the first time in 1175 AD against the Multan, while the second attack was 1178 AD against the Patan(Gujarat), but the ruler of Patan Bhima-II beated him badly. The most popular wars between the Mohammad Ghori and Indian kings were the first war of Panipat (1191), the second war of Panipat (1192), and the war of Chandwar in 1194 AD.


    Mohammad Ghori returned to Gajni in 1206 and gave the responsibility of territories that he won in the war to his slave commander Qutubuddin Aibak. He died in the same year after reaching Gajani. The credit of establishing the Muslim rule in India is given to Mohammad Ghori.


    History of India


    The Delhi Sultanate 1206 - 1526 AD


    The period of the Delhi Sultanate started with Qutubuddin Aibak. When he established a new Muslim dynasty, which was the Slave (Gulam) Dynasty. 


    There were five dynasties ruled between the period of 1206 - 1526 AD. According to the different dynasties, the Period of Delhi Sultanate can be divided into five distinct periods viz.


    1. The Slave Dynasty (1206 - 1290)

    2. The Khilji Dynasty (1290 - 1320)

    3. The Tughlaq Dynasty (1320 - 1414)

    4. The Sayyid Dynasty (1414 - 1451)

    5. The Lodhi Dynasty (1451 - 1526)


    There were many kings who ruled during the period of Delhi Sultanate, like Iltutmish, Rajiya sultan, Balban, Alauddin Khilji, Mubarak Shah, Mohammad-bin Tughlaq, Firoz Shah Tughlaq, Sikander Lodi, etc. In which some of the kings famoused due to his administration and contributions in India.


    Administration of the Sultanate period was controlled by the central, the Sultan was the head of administration. Political, legal, and military authorities were vested in the Sultan. He was responsible for administration and was also the commander in chief of the military forces.


    Although, no clear law of succession developed among Muslim rulers. Thus military strength was the main factor in succession to the throne.


    Still, their administration was well managed and controlled by the different kinds of departments.


    Rulers of the Sultanate also did more works on infrastructure development.

    The new features brought by the Turkish conquerors were the dome, the lofty towers, the true arch unsupported by beam, and the vault. The first example of a true or voussoir arch is considered to be the tomb of Ghiyasuddin Balban in Mehrauli (Delhi).

    History of India



    The Vijaynagar Empire of Southern India


    Along with the Sultanate period, one more empire was established in Southern India by Harihar and Bukka, which is known as the Sangama Dynasty


    Between 1336 AD to 1650 AD Vijaynagar kingdom flourished. Which lay in the Deccan, to the south of the Bahmani kingdom. The period of Vijaynagar can be divided into four distinct dynasties viz. 


    Dynasty

    Periods

    Founder

    1. Sangama

    1336-1485

    Harihar and Bukka

    2. Saluva

    1485-1505

    Saluva Narasimha

    3. Tuluva

    1505-1570

    Veer Narsimha

    4. Aravidu

    1570-1650

    Tirumala



    The Mughal Period 1526 - 1707 AD


    The next major empire after Delhi Sultanate established by Muslim rulers was the Mughal Empire. The invasion of Timur was a crucial point in Indian history before a Hindu religious movement (15th-16th) called the Bhakti movement, came to be.


    Finally, in the first of the 16th Century, the Mughal empire started to rise. The Mughal empire was one of the greatest, rich and glorious, with the whole of India unified and ruled by one monarch. Babar, Humayun, Sher Shah Suri (differently Mughal king), Akbar, Jehangir, Shah Jahan, and  Aurangzeb were famous Mughal kings.


    The Mughals were responsible for setting up efficient public administration, laying out infrastructure, and encouraging the arts. There are many monuments in India today existing from the Mughal period. After the death of the last Mughal King, Aurangzeb in 1707 AD, the Mughal Empire started disintegration. The period of 1707-1857 AD is known as the later Mughal period. In this period British were dominating the Mughals. The last Mughal emperor was Bahadur Shah-II.


    History of India
    Medieval History of India 

    Maratha Empire


    Along with the Mughals, one more empire called Maratha was growing between the 1674- 1818 AD. Shivaji was the founder of the Maratha Empire. Sivaji also is known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Sivaji was the greatest warrior of his time. His first attack was on the fort of Bijapur. He was the master in the Gorilla war. He used these tactics to capture a part of, the then, dominant Mughal empire. After the death of Sivaji in 1680, Sambhaji became the successor of Sivaji. The last Maratha king was Bajirav-II.


    MODERN HISTORY OF INDIA AFTER 1707 AD 


    The modern period of Indian history is mostly known as the British governance and Independent revolution in India. 


    During the 16th century Europeans came to India for trading. The European trading companies dominated and competed in Indian markets during the 17th century.


    In the last quarter of the 18th Century, the British had left behind all others and established themselves as the dominant power in India.  The British administered India for a period of about two hundred years and brought about revolutionary changes in the political, economic, and as well as Social life of the country.


    After the battle of Plassey (1757)and Buxar (1764) British achieved political powers and India became the slave under the English till about two Centuries. After the deterioration of the Mughals rule, the British actively used the strategy of ‘divide-and-rule’ to rule over India.

    Modern history of India
    The modern history of India

    The exploitation, oppression with the Indians, and the exploitation of resources by the British after colonization Sowed the seeds of freedom among the Indians. Due to it, the Indians started fighting against the British. There are many revolts that started against the British. Like tribal revolt, Farmer revolts, Civil revolts, and Military revolts.


    The Revolt of 1857 was an important landmark in the freedom struggle of modern India. The Revolt of  1857 also known as the military Revolt,  occurred during the Governor-generalship of Lord Canning.


    The establishment of the National Congress sessions in 1885 was the second important turning point, which played the most important role in the freedom struggle of India.


    India was free from clutches of British in 1947, after sacrifice and long time struggle by many freedom fighters, like Kuddiram Bose, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Rajendra Lahiri, Mangal Pandey, Dada-Bhai Nauroji, Bipin Chandra pal, Subhash Chandra Bose, Abul Kalam Azad, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Veer Kunvar Singh, Rash Bihari Ghosh, C R Das, Sardar Patel, Mahatma Gandhi, and others.


    Thus, the history of India timeline presenting various diversities like Social, Economical, and the Political between the Ancient to Modern period. 


    The History of India pdf DOWNLOAD


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